Schematic Diagrams

Useful schematic and wiring diagrams. ✔ ✔ Enjoy electronic circuits, let your idea comes to hardware

Sine to Rectangular Wave Conversion Circuit

We have already given many posts on Op-Amp circuits. But the list of applications of Op-Amp will be keep on going.  The best Op-Amp circuit which is used to convert sine waveform into rectangular waveform is the schmitt trigger circuit. To avoid the false triggering, a positive feedback is used in a comparator circuit of […]

Relay Driver

Relays have been around for a long time and though often now replaced with solid state switches, they have unique properties that make them more robust than solid-state devices and are not going away. The unique properties are high current capacity, ability to withstand ESD and drive circuit isolation. There are numerous ways to drive […]

Precision Full Wave Rectifier Circuit

The use of Operational amplifiers can improve the performance of a wide variety of signal processing circuits. In rectifier circuits, the voltage drop that occurs with an ordinary semiconductor rectifier can be eliminated to give precision rectification. The below shown circuit is the precision full wave rectifier. It consists of following sections: Precision half-wave rectifier Inverting summing amplifier The […]

Photodiode Design Note

Photodiode is a type of light detector capable of converting light energy into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Photodiodes are similar to typical semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed or packaged with a window to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Photodiode Many […]

Perfboard Circuit Construction

Here explains the types of general purpose PCBs and the method of circuit construction on a Perf board.Printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support the electronic components and to connect them electrically using conductive pathways called tracks etched from copper sheets. Besides etched PCBs, there are Common or General purpose PCBs to […]

Optical Devices – How they work

Electronic optical devices have varied applications in telecommunication, military services, medical field and in automated control systems. Solid state devices like sensors, IR and laser emitters are widely used in these applications. Optoelectronic devices use the energy from the sunlight to activate or inhibit electronic circuits. Check out how they work… There are two types […]

Mobile Phone Communication. How it works?

A mobile phone is an electronic device used for mobile telecommunications over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. A cell phone offers full Duplex Communication and transfer the link when the user moves from one cell to another. As the phone user moves from one cell area to another, the […]

Metal Oxide Varistor

The Metal Oxide Varistor or MOV is a voltage dependent, nonlinear device that provides excellent transient voltage suppression. The Metal Oxide Varistor is designed to protect various types of electronic devices and semiconductor elements from switching and induced lightning surges. When exposed to high transient voltage, the MOV clamps voltage to a safe level. A […]

Low Voltage & Automotive Circuit Protection

TO BE READ BY ALL ELECTROSCHEMATICS ENTHUSIASTS! Much needs to be said about this oft neglected subject. We would never even think of connecting the utility mains to our house without proper circuit protection—also, we must observe electrical codes. Low voltage applications (under 24V), we say, are safe—or are they? perhaps safe from electrical shock, […]

LM311 Datasheet

LM311 is an excellent Operational amplifier capable of driving DTL, RTL, TTL, or MOS logic. The output can switch voltages to 50 volts at currents to 50 mA. IC LM311 operates between 5 and 30 volts single supply. It can be used to drive Relays, Lamps, Solenoids etc. But when compared to other Op Amps, […]

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